遥感图像目视解译与应用的基础知识

 

一、遥感图像目视解译

(一)概念

    运用专业背景知识,通过肉眼观察,经过综合分析、逻辑推理、验证检查把遥感图像中包含的地物信息提取和解析出来的过程。是人们通过遥感技术获取目标信息的最直接、最基本的方法。

(二)意义

1、是基本技术和方法(技能)

2、有助于识别地物、提取信息

3、辅助分析

4、辅助定量、数字图像处理

三)原理

目视解译是遥感成像的逆过程。

地表景观==>成像过程==>遥感图像==>目视解译==>地表景观

(四)解译标志

遥感图像上那些能够作为识别、分析、判断景观地物的影像特征。

  • 直接解译标志:是判读目标自身特点在影像上的直接表现形式

(1)形状:地物轮廓在影像表面的投影

(2)大小:地物的尺寸、面积、体积等按比例缩小的相似纪录

(3)色调:最重要、最直观的解译标志

(4)阴影:可形成立体感,便于判断地物性质。有时需除去地形起伏引起的阴影

(5)图案:景观地物几何特征随影像比例尺变化在影像上的模型系统,可识别特征在空间的展布

(6)布局:物体间一定的位置关系和排列方式

(7)位置:地物间彼此相互关联关系在影像上的反映,相互印证

  (8)纹理:地物影像轮廓内的色调变化的空间布局和频率

  • 间接解译标志:从图像上能看出的和直接解译标志密切联系的地物特征,通过逻辑推理获得判断(如根据水的流向可以判定地表大致形态)

(五)目视解译的一般顺序(原则)

先整体后局部,先宏观后微观;

从已知到未知,先易后难;

先山区后平原,先地表后深部。

(六)目视解译方法

  1、直判法:

直接通过遥感图像的解译标志。

  2、对比法:

将要解译的遥感图像,与另一已知的遥感图像样片进行对照。(必须在相同或基本相同的条件下进行)

3、邻比法

同一张遥感图像或相邻遥感图像上进行邻近比较。(通常只能将地物不同类型的界限区分出来,不一定能够鉴别地物的属性)

 4、动态对比法

利用同一地区不同时相成像的遥感图像加以对比分析。(对自然动态的研究尤为重要)

  5、逻辑推理法

借助各种地物或自然现象之间的内在联系。

 

二、遥感应用

(一)遥感应用的过程

  问题的提出==>数据收集==>数据处理与分析==>信息表达

(二)几个典型应用实例

1、地形图更新

2、土地利用变化动态监测

3、农业、林业

4、地质

5、水资源

6、灾害的监测和评估

(三)土地利用/土地覆盖的分类

    可以用来:

    动态监测城市扩展情况

及时发现非法用地

辅助制定城市发展规划

(四)洪涝灾害的遥感监测

    首先,要了解水的光谱特征,从而选择遥感数据

接下来,根据遥感图像进行下一步测算

   1、洪涝区的提取

洪水前的水体分布作为背景图像

测量洪水期间的水体分布

两者进行逻辑运算得洪涝区分布图

   2、淹没面积测算

将洪涝区图像与土地利用专题图进行复合分析,提取洪涝区内的耕地分布,并与行政区划图叠加,得到按行政单元统计的耕地面积

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吾爱地理 » 遥感图像目视解译与应用的基础知识
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