地理信息系统(GIS)基础知识-吾爱地理

 

一、概述

    GIS是Geographical Information System的缩写,即地理信息系统

另有:空间信息系统(SIS)、地球信息学(Geo-Informatics)、地理信息科学(GISci)

  1、定义

    地理信息系统通常泛指用于获取、存储、显示、处理、分析和综合与地球表面位置相关的数据的计算机系统

 2、基本功能:数据的采集、管理、处理、分析和输出

  3、组成

计算机、空间数据库、GIS软件、分析应用软件、用户、图形用户接口(GUI)

 4、类型

(1)专题地理信息系统:是具有有限目标和专业特点的地理信息系统,为特定的专门目的服务。

例如:水资源管理信息系统、矿业资源管理信息系统、农作物估产信息系统

(2)区域信息系统:主要以区域综合研究和全面信息服务为目标。可以按行政分区与自然分区有很多不同的规模。

以上两者称为专门或行业GIS。

(3)地理信息系统工具(通用地理信息系统):是一组具有图形图像数字化、储存管理、查询检索、分析运算和多种输出等地理信息系统基本功能的软件包。

  5、特点

(1)具有采集、管理、分析和输出多种地理空间信息的能力

(2)以地理研究和地理决策为目的,以地理模型方法为手段,具有空间分析、多要素综合分析和动态监测的能力,并能产生高层次的地理信息

(3)具有公共的地理定位基础

(4)由计算机系统支持进行管理,并由计算机系统模拟地理信息方法,作用于空间数据。产生有用信息。

(5)从外部看,是计算机软硬件系统;其内涵却是由计算机程序和地理数据组织而成的地理空间信息模型,是一个逻辑缩小的、高度信息化的地理系统

  6、与其他系统区别

  (1)与数据库管理系统(DEMS)

    GIS有对空间数据进行解释和判断的能力,DEMS只是简单的数据管理,前者包含后者。

  (2)与管理信息系统(MIS)

GIS可以对图形数据和属性数据共同管理、分析和应用,MIS只有属性数据库的管理,即使存贮了图形,也是以文件形式管理,图形要素不能分解、查询,没有拓扑关系。

   (3)与地图数据库

地图数据库只是将数字地图存放起来,不注重分析和查询,更不可能进行深层次分析。它是GIS的数据源之一。

(4)与CAD系统

CAD系统只处理规则的几何图形,属性库功能弱,更缺乏分析和判断能力

 7、发展史

    60年代:开拓期;      70年代:巩固发展期;

80年代:大发展时期;  90年代:社会化阶段;

我国开始于80年代初,90年代起开始大发展。

加拿大地理信息系统(CGIS)创立于上世纪60年代中期,是世界上第一个地理信息系统。

8、学科基础

地理学、地图学、GPS、计算机科学、数据库、软件工程等

 9、应用领域

所有于空间位置相关的地方都与地理信息系统有关。

被广泛用于资源管理、区域与城乡规划、灾害监测、环境评估等各个领域。

例如:城市土地利用信息系统;电信资源管理;铁路地理信息系统;公安警用地理信息系统;医疗机构信息查询

 10、市场前景

 在日常生活中所涉及的信息中,有80%与地理信息密切相关。

 

二、GIS的基本功能

(一)数据采集

在此之前,要进行数据分析和预处理。

  1、数据输入

    把现有的资料转换为计算机可处理的形式,按统一的参考坐标系统、统一的编码、统一的标准和结构组织到数据库中的数据处理过程。

  2、地理数据:分为空间图形数据和空间属性数据

 (1)图形数据

    标志是图形元素有明确的位置坐标,不同图形之间有各种各样的拓扑关系。

包括几何数据和关系数据:

几何数据:描述地理实体的位置和形状大小等量度信息,表达方式是坐标串。可以把空间目标分成点、线、多边形三种基本类型。

关系数据:描述各个不同地理实体之间的空间关系(邻接、关联、包含、连通等)的信息,其表达方式是建立实体间的连接信息。

 拓扑关系:图形元素的空间位置和相互关系

(2)属性数据

    是描述地理实体的社会、经济或其他专题数据。其表达方式是字符串、各种代码或统计数值等。

  3、数据来源

    现有地图、卫星影像、航空像片、调查统计数据等等

  4、采集方法

    对现有地图:数字化(包括手扶数字化和扫描数字化)

    野外测量数据:直接转入计算机

    属性数据和文字信息:直接录入

  5、数据检核

找出并改正数据输入时产生的误差。

(二)数据编辑

指对地理信息系统中的空间数据和属性数据进行数据组织、修改。是地理信息系统最基本的功能。分为矢量数据编辑和栅格数据编辑。

  1、矢量数据编辑

包括图形检查编辑、属性检查编辑、注记编辑等。

其中图形检查编辑主要就是要修改要素的空间位置。

  2、栅格数据编辑

用于处理以栅格结构表示的数据。

(三)数据存储管理

  1、储存介质:存储器

分为可移动式存储器和非移动式存储器。

2、数据管理:急需解决如何管理跨平台的,多种数据结构、多种数据格式、多时态的数据的问题

(四)查询和空间分析

    此为地理信息系统主要优点,也是区别于一般地图制作系统的主要特点

包括:缓冲区分析,拓扑叠加分析,拓扑空间查询等

1、缓冲区分析

确立不同地理特征的空间邻近度或邻近性的操作就是建立缓冲区。

  2、拓扑叠加分析

将两个或两个以上的具有不同性质的数据层重叠放在一起,产生新的数据层和新的属性。

  3、拓扑空间查询

就是对点、线、面三种基本元素相互之间的关系进行分析处理后提取的拓扑特征。

4、高级辅助决策功能(SDSS)

    可以进行最佳位置的选择,新修公路的最佳路线选择等。

(五)制图与表达方式

将地理信息系统进行可视化表现。最常用的形式是地图。

除此之外,已出现动态三维表现、图形数据和多媒体数据混合表现、网上地图和多媒体信息浏览、虚拟现实技术等。

  • 地图的显示和输出

  (1)传统地图

    印刷在纸上或其他介质上,包含地理要素和装饰要素。

  (2)电子地图

屏幕显示的地图称为电子地图,较之传统地图有很多优点。

  2、地理空间信息的表示与制图

  (1)矢量数据的表示

    用具有拓扑关系的点、线、面等图形要素,以及它们的属性,加上注记来表示空间地理信息。

  (2)栅格数据(影像)的表示

    单色影像每一个像元以连续的256级灰度值表示

彩色影像以红、绿、蓝三个波段,每个波段的灰度值从0—255级组合而成。

  (3)格网数据的表示

将等于某一个值的所有像元或某一值域之间的所有像元使用相同颜色来表示。

  (4)统计数据的表示

    使用表格、直方图、饼图等。

  (5)三维可视化表示

    是地理空间数据最富直观性、最容易理解和接受的表示方法,是目前研究的热点。分为静态和动态两种形式。

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吾爱地理 » 地理信息系统(GIS)基础知识-吾爱地理
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