盘点哪些有意思的地图?

全球各地体毛指数

环地中海区域简直了。。。日本人的体毛明显比东亚大陆更多。

 

 

 

世界各国铁路密度(单位国土面积)

德意志力压群雄(包括瑞士、比利时、捷克这几个前神圣罗马帝国成员)

 

坐牢的人口比例

灯塔国大亮。。。

 

 

 

被拍摄最多的地区

欧洲亮瞎眼

 

 

 

1859年的世界形势

黑龙江以北已经失去了,乌苏里江以东还在。库页岛早已被日俄渗透得千疮百孔。

 

 

 

 

一战前奥匈帝国的民族分布

“散装”的既视感扑面而来

 

 

 

1940年欧洲人口密度地图

后来,二战的惨烈杀伤和战后的强制迁徙,极大改变了欧洲、特别是中欧和东欧的人口布局

 

 

今天的欧洲人口密度地图

 

 

 

 

欧洲各国最低工资的实际购买力

 

 

 

美国人眼里的欧洲:

 

 

美国人眼里的亚洲:

 

 

 

美国人眼里的北美:

 

 

 

 

美国人眼里的全世界:

 

 

 

工业革命在欧洲的扩散

各地的煤铁资源及蓬勃发展的工业区

 

 

 

1880年的美国铁路网

北方的铁路网已经很壮观,横跨北美大陆的铁路已经建成。

 

 

 

船舶实时地图:

长江航道从宜宾开始,运河航道到济宁为止。赣江的中下游、湘江中游也有一段通航河道。

 

 

长三角密集的通航河道

 

 

杭州市区,钱塘江通航寥寥,但运河的通航能力还不错。(钱塘江杭州市区段直到入海口,有大量的沙坎,并且涌潮频繁,通航能力很差)

 

航道贯穿整个上海市区

 

 

长江口的航道紧贴南岸,以上海外高桥港为枢纽。

 

 

宁波舟山地区的航道情况。可见甬江也是通航河道。历史上的宁波港就是从三江口开始的。

 

 

萧山南部开始有一段浙东运河沟通绍兴。并且其航道可能和浦阳江连接而汇入钱塘江。

外高桥港、洋山港、北仑港,长三角海港的三大枢纽。

 

 

通航河道只到微山湖。苏北灌溉总渠的通航状况不错。

 

 

珠三角的航道。珠江的各个入海口都能通航。

西江上游航道基本只到肇庆。

 

 

密西西比河的航道能直通芝加哥和匹兹堡。密苏里河(密西西比河最长的支流,甚至比干流还长)的通航河道基本只到塔尔萨。

 

 

欧洲深入内陆的各大河流,莱茵河、易北河、多瑙河基本都通航。多瑙河穿过这么多山区还几乎全程通航,简直逆天。

 

 

欧洲的“江南”——尼德兰低地。密集的通航水网。

 

 

泰晤士河、塞纳河、罗纳河的通航状况不错,可以直达伦敦、巴黎和里昂。

 

 

泰晤士河航线到伦敦

 

 

塞纳河航线到巴黎

 

 

南美的两条大河,亚马逊河(流量世界第一)、拉普拉塔河(流量世界第四),通航能力都相当逆天。

其中巴西的玛瑙斯港距离亚马逊河口超过1500公里,竟可通航3-5万吨级海轮——相当于吃水10米,长江上要南京港以下航道(距长江口400公里左右)才有这种水深。

作为参考:武汉港距长江口约1200公里,重庆港距长江口2340公里。而2015年长江主航道水深数据:

宜宾(合江门)——重庆(羊角滩)……… 3.5米

重庆(羊角滩)——涪陵李渡长江大桥…… 4.0米

涪陵李渡长江大桥—宜昌(下临江坪)…… 4.5米

宜昌(下临江坪)—荆州(四码头)……… 3.5米

荆州(四码头)——城陵矶………………… 3.8米

城陵矶——————武汉长江大桥………… 4.5米

武汉长江大桥———安庆(吉阳矶)……… 5.0米

安庆(吉阳矶)——安庆(皖河口)……… 7.0米

安庆(皖河口)——芜湖长江大桥………… 7.0米

其中:安庆南水道 黄湓闸以上 3.5米(试运行)

黄湓闸以下 5.0米(试运行)

成德洲东港 5.0米(试运行)

芜湖长江大桥———南京(燕子矶)……… 9.0米

甚至秘鲁的伊基托斯,一个距亚马逊河河口有3700公里远的城市(都快到安第斯山脚下,离太平洋只有800公里了),仍然可以通航海轮,该城市也成为世界上距离海岸最远的海港。

 

 

相较之下,同属热带河流的刚果河(流量世界第二),由于“非洲高原”的特殊地形,尽管坐拥平均200米的水深,仍然通航能力不给力,在距离入海口100多公里的地方就是世界著名的英加(inga)瀑布(在14.5km的范围内河床总落差96m,也是世界上流量最大的瀑布)。如果算上整个利文斯敦瀑布群,则350公里河段内连续出现了30个瀑布或急流,总落差达280米。

红圈内为英加(inga)地区。

 

 

 

北美气候及农业地图:

加拿大各地气候类型:

 

 

美国各地气候类型:

 

美国中部大平原的草地类型:

 

 

世界黑土地分布:

 

 

美国黑土地分布:

 

美国各地农业用地占比:

 

世界国别肥胖率地图:

 

中国分省肥胖率地图:

 

世界国别男女吸烟率地图:

 

 

中国分省期望寿命和死亡模式地图:

 

全球疟疾流行地图:

 

 

各地主要Y染色体单倍群类型及迁徙扩散方向:

 

印欧语系的起源与迁徙扩散:

 

印欧语系各分支地图:

有意思的是俄语在西伯利亚各北冰洋水系的大河两岸的分布

 

汉语方言分布图:

 

吴语分片地图

细分到了小片,包括徽语/吴语徽严片也进行了细分。但这张图的缺点是过度拘泥于行政区划。太湖片的细分呈现一个很有意思的现象:余杭对杭州无限深情,萧山对杭州爱理不理,但杭州话(城六区,不含下沙九堡和滨江,下沙九堡的土著也是江对岸来的垦荒移民)其实和萧山一样,都属于临绍小片(从临安一直绵延到余姚慈溪;但这个“临”其实是指代南宋的临安府,而不是现在的临安)。余杭大部分地区是和湖州一样的苕溪小片;目前的慈溪余姚多数地区也属于临绍片(历史上余姚属于绍兴府,而慈溪的治所在宁波江北区的慈城镇),图中表示得有问题,把两地东部属于甬江小片的也划进临绍小片了。

 

东南地区各大汉语方言分布:

 

广东汉语方言分布图:

 

安徽南部方言分布图:

 

湘赣两省汉语方言分布图:

 

东北地区汉语方言分布图:

 

广义长三角的人口净流入/流出地图:

宁波市区的人口净流入率比杭州市区高一些。

 

全国相对富裕地市州盟地图

 

 

中国历史地图

1582年大明的“两京十三省”。明朝的区划是“犬牙交错”的典型。

北界大致是长城;辽宁属于山东,甘肃属于陕西(陕县以西);四川不包括西康;云南边境大大向缅甸方向拓展;湖南湖北是一个省;河南和河北有交错(犬牙交错);贵州是最奇葩的,完全是把周边省份最偏远落后贫瘠的地区合并起来成为一个省,极端的犬牙交错,完全出于军事目的;浙江和福建跟现在一模一样;江西比现在少了个婺源。

 

 

清代浙江各府。台州和绍兴是建国后区划调整的最大输家。历史时期杭州湾南岸的海岸线和现在有很大区别,现在的很多土地都是解放后围垦而来的。

 

 

古希腊历史地图(公元前431年时局):

 

 

1866年的俄罗斯帝国领土及势力范围:

 

 

1941-1942,纳粹扩张的极限:

 

杭州历史地图和规划图

民国杭州城市规划图之:《汪胡帧、张书农氏计划草图》

 

 

民国杭州城市规划图之:《张其昀氏计划草案》

 

 

民国杭州城市规划图之:《盛次恒氏计划草案》

 

 

1947年杭州工务局计划草图

 

 

解放初杭州地图(1949年4月,三野司陆地测量队编印)

 

 

杭州市1949年实况图:

 

 

1956年杭州市初步规划示意图(武林广场一带作为90年代之后的杭州市中心,已显露雏形)

 

 

1958年杭州市区地图:

 

 

1964年8月杭州市规划图:

 

 

杭州市解放后建成区范围发展图(1965年):

 

 

1976年杭州市郊交通图:

 

 

1981年杭州市现状图:

 

 

1983年杭州市区交通图:

 

 

1992年杭州市总体规划修改补充图。可以发现那个时候石祥路和西绕城是一体的;西溪湿地那个时候再规划上叫做“古荡水乡旅游区”,并且东界在丰潭路。所以杭州人把丰潭路以西叫做“城西”(丰潭路以西、紫金港路以东又叫“老城西”),本来都是湿地水乡,但紫金港路以东在90年代以后全部变成住宅了。

 

 

1995年杭州现状图。丰潭路以西开始出现连片住宅。滨江浦沿一带开始开发。

 

 

 

 

 

 

本文授权转载于知乎用户“盖因斯iFortune”,原文链接https://www.zhihu.com/question/34378366/answer/614216864,感谢作者辛勤创作!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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吾爱地理 » 盘点哪些有意思的地图?
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