高考地理主观题答题技巧——“非A而B”型题目解题思路

“非A而B”型题目是啥?

好像没有人提过这个说法……没错,这就是老师我自己编的。

大概就是类似这样一类题目:

材料:格尔木是青藏铁路的重要站点之一,2006年青藏铁路全线通车,为减轻风沙对铁路通行的影响,格尔木至昆仑山口段采用了透风挡沙墙与“石方格”相结合的防沙方式。
问题:简述该段铁路没有用“草方格”而采用“石方格”防沙的主要依据。(5分)

“非A而B”题目就是这种“为什么在xx这个地方,干XXX这件事情,不用xxx而用xxx”的题目,现在考试中是比较常见的。回答的思路如下:

1.找地点关键词,总结当地显著环境特点。

2.从A、B的易获取程度、数量及产量、运费等方面去思考。

3.罗列并对比A与B的最显著特点,结合当地地理环境特征和干XXX这件事的具体情况,夸B贬A。

结合上题中,分析如下:

1.总结当地显著环境特点:风沙强、高寒、植被稀疏。
2.因植被稀疏,当地石多而草少,外地运来草则成本高。
3.麦草与石料显著特点对比,麦草轻、易破损;石重,坚固。结合当地环境特点:风沙大,对设施侵蚀、破坏能力强,沙障的作用就是防沙,需要材料坚固不易破损。因此石料的特点都是可以组织答案的优点。

本题参考答案:

该地区海拔高,气温低,降水少(1分),植被稀少,从外地运草成本较高(1分);本地石块丰富,可就地取材,降低运输成本(1分);石块重量大,不易被搬运,防风效果好,(1分),耐风化侵蚀,使用寿命长(1分)。

按照此思路作答,至少4分,表达好一点就能满分。

可以再做一小题进行练习。

材料:廊桥又称风雨桥,是在桥上加盖廊屋的特殊桥梁。闽浙山区迄今留存不少古廊桥。当地采伐后的木材,需经一段时间的自然晾干才能用作建桥木料。
问题:当地建造古廊桥多采用木制构件,而少采用较为坚硬且防腐性能更好的石料,分析其原因。

按照以上思路不难作答。

比“非A而B”略难一点的,还有为什么“无A仅B”。

就是“为什么在XXX这个地方,干XXX这件事,用B这件东西很好”

虽然没有提供对比的A,但答题思路也差不多,从当地环境特点,B这件东西的易得程度,结合环境特点及干XXX这件事情的要求来夸用B的好处。

解题的关键是:能够把B的特征与适合当地环境特点相结合、挂上钩,让这一特点变成言之有理的优点。

如以下一题:

材料一:海南洋浦千年古盐田是至今保留最完好、最早采用日晒的古盐场,目前仍有1000多个形态各异保存完好的砚式石盐槽密布海滩。盐田人就地取材,将海岸边黑色的多气孔结构的玄武岩石块凿成一个底面平平如砚状的浅坑,平时在这些石槽中注入经海泥过滤后的海水(涨潮时海水也会自动漫入这些石槽),经暴晒制作出高品质的盐巴……
题目:(1)当地传统民居多以石头为建筑材料,说明其原因。
(2)分析当地村民多以玄武岩作为制盐容器的主要原因。

思路:

第一小题可从题目中获得当地玄武岩分布广泛,作为建材容易获得,高中地理中能想到的玄武岩的特点:坚硬(相比木头等其他建材)、黑色、多孔。建筑材料需要经久耐用,而且尽量让房间的温度、湿度适合居住。让玄武岩的特点和理想建材的要求相吻合,组织答案。

第二小题比较难,但是也是从玄武岩作为一种黑色、多孔的岩石的特点结合晒盐需要一种升温快的容器这一角度组织答案。

本题的参考答案:

(1)当地多玄武岩,就地取材利于减少建设成本;玄武岩石材坚硬,耐腐蚀能力强,经久耐用;当地夏季炎热潮湿,玄武岩多孔,利于隔热(降低室内温度),同时利于防潮(调节空气湿度),改善室内环境。
(2)玄武岩比热容小,白天增温快;且为黑色,吸收更多热量,利于蒸发;玄武岩具有一定孔隙度,有利于渗水、析盐。

再给一个类似的题目给大家做做试试:

材料:云南地质复杂,有”地质博物馆”之称,铁路建设虽然难度大,但却是我国最早开通国际铁路运输的省级行政区,早在1901年就开工建设了通往法属殖民地的滇越铁路,虽然法国国内铁路采用的是标准轨距(1435mm),但考虑到该铁路沿线特殊的地理条件,该铁路线采用了窄轨(轨距仅1米,在其支线甚至采用了更窄的米轨)的形式,运行在这种线路上的火车也是车体短小的小火车,滇越铁路穿行于滇南的绝岭河谷间,高差近千米,因而车速慢,以致形成了“火车没有汽车跑得快”的怪现象。
问题:分析滇越铁路采用“窄轨线路+小火车”运输的原因。

廊桥参考答案:当地森林资源丰富,建桥的原料丰富;相对于石材,木料更轻便,不仅便于运输,且易于加工,建造成本低。

小火车参考答案:云南矿产和山岳景区多,这些地区大多地形复杂,适合宽轨建设的宽平地域少;沿线高山峡谷多,地质灾害多,建设宽轨的难度大;单个矿山、景区等企业出于降低成本考虑,投入交通建设的资金有限;窄轨道路的基建工程量小;窄轨的弯道半径小,对狭窄路基的适应性强;运行于窄轨上的小火车车体短小,转弯灵活安全,上下坡便于控制速度;小火车可随意停靠,方便游客沿途观赏和上下车等。

本文授权转载于知乎用户“牛正蓝”,感谢作者的辛勤创作!

  • 打赏

x

  • 微信
  • 支付宝
除特殊注明外,资料来源于网络,仅供学习,请于24小时内 删除
吾爱地理 » 高考地理主观题答题技巧——“非A而B”型题目解题思路
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Reading your article has greatly helped me, and I agree with you. But I still have some questions. Can you help me? I will pay attention to your answer. thank you.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Reading your article has greatly helped me, and I agree with you. But I still have some questions. Can you help me? I will pay attention to your answer. thank you.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I really like reading through a post that can make men and women think. Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Good post! We will be linking to this particularly great post on our site. Keep up the great writing
Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
This was beautiful Admin. Thank you for your reflections.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I truly appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
This was beautiful Admin. Thank you for your reflections.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Good post! We will be linking to this particularly great post on our site. Keep up the great writing
Awesome! Its genuinely remarkable post, I have got much clear idea regarding from this post
This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am really happy to read everthing at one place
This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am really happy to read everthing at one place
I very delighted to find this internet site on bing, just what I was searching for as well saved to fav
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all the points you made
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
Hi there to all, for the reason that I am genuinely keen of reading this website’s post to be updated on a regular basis. It carries pleasant stuff.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all the points you made
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Awesome! Its genuinely remarkable post, I have got much clear idea regarding from this post
This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
I like the efforts you have put in this, regards for all the great content.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I like the efforts you have put in this, regards for all the great content.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I truly appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.
I really like reading through a post that can make men and women think. Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!
Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.