初学者如何学习GIS?

上大学的时候,算得上是一个特别积极主动了解专业、学习专业知识、向前辈和互联网讨教的GISer。从那时起,我就被各种可以称之为行业“无脑流言”的信息包围。一些无脑言论如“GIS专业毕业,做外业搞不过测绘,做编程搞不过计算机”,“GIS毕业了就只有做二次开发”等等。很多流言简直可以用幼稚来形容。

 

那么,初学者如何学习GIS呢?

要解答这个问题,首先需要搞清楚什么是GIS?GIS的核心是什么?在回答这两个问题之前,需要强调两点:

第一点:GIS不是计算机,GIS不是测绘,GIS不是遥感。GIS就是GIS!

第二点:在我国的高校和科研院所里形成了GIS的几大学派:以武大为代表的测绘信息工程学派;以北师大、武大乃至中科院一部分团队为代表的遥感学派;以中国地质大学(武汉)为代表的地理信息工程学派;以南师大、北大、地理所一部分团队等为代表的地理学派。

遥感学派实际上已经随着遥感作为独立的学科并招收遥感专业的本硕博生而不再算是GIS的一个学派。

地理信息工程也随着老一辈院士、长江学者团队的消失、MapGIS距离GIS本源渐行渐远的事实而瓦解。这是历史的必然,也是学科发展的必然。

测绘信息工程学派和地理学派是目前GIS最为主流的两个学派。在对地观测技术突飞猛进,一路高歌的道路上,武大扛起了大旗,在这一学派的主导下将GIS的一个方面引领到世界的舞台乃至发展至地球空间信息科学。

学派的另一头——地理学派,本来应该借助大数据时空维度的大势,借助逐步兴起的社会计算、城市计算以及GIS在人文社会科学中所能发挥的重大作用和未来无限潜力而雄起。这个层面,老牌GIS强校南大、华东师大、中山大学和南师大等已经远远落后,而北大、中科院地理所在雄起,武大也在尝试,但基因决定人才梯队还是跟不上,缺乏引领性大牛。前者偏重对地观测建模与分析,后者趋于对人观测建模和分析。大概未来的GIS在武大,在北大,在中科院地理所。这两个方面是GIS之未来,GIS之大势。

之所以讲第二点,是希望大家对“GIS是什么”有所理解,而第一点则是试图强调“GIS不是什么”。下面具体看一下“什么是GIS”

那么,GIS究竟是什么呢?GIS是对地理空间乃至地球空间事物或现象的特征的数据获取、操作、管理、分析、建模和可视化的技术系统,也是研究这几个方面科学问题的应用科学。其中时空数据是GIS的血液,获取、操作和管理就是对这一“血液”的生产、加工、处理和存储。而空间分析方法体系和地理建模是GIS的灵魂,可视化与制图则是GIS的颜值

以上既是对GIS是什么的定义,也道出了GIS的核心是什么。排在第一位的必然是GIS之灵魂,血液和颜值居其后。

 

作为GIS初学者,学什么呢?

十年GIS生涯,见过有人一人抵得过十人,一个开发项目在很短的时间里独立完成,架构和业务实现水平都很高;也见过大学本科发表顶级SCI论文,有人还能将GIS软件应用的溜起,无所不会。可能会有人说:编程编程,论文论文,软件软件。但事实并非如此。独立完成一套应用平台不见得懂得多少GIS核心知识;本科发表顶级期刊指不定对GIS的了解很浅;软件用的溜起可能只是操作熟练。所见所闻所遇所思告诉我,一个人如果不经历了一步一个脚印、十年如一日的GIS专业知识学习和自身专业素质培养,不可能成为一个高水平的GISer,对GIS的认知也不会高到哪里去。包括本科、硕士、博士毕业生和大学老师,谁都不会例外。某个阶段某个方面的小成果只能代表你在GIS某个很小的方面付出的努力有了回报并运气不错,并不一定GIS水平高。

之所以首先拎出这一段,是为了强调一步一步稳扎稳打向前走的重要性。作为GIS初学者,只有这个阶段有时间实现这一目标,为你以后的科研或应用打好坚实的基础。

GIS初学者学什么,如何学习,主要以下几个方面可以做参考:

编程很重要,但要正确看待编程在GIS中的位置和采用恰当的学习方式。这一方面之前已有回答,可做参考:

         地理信息科学需要对编程有多熟练才算合格?

大学课程还是要重视,毕竟,自学有很多选择成本和学习入门成本,大学课程对GIS初学者仍然是最为重要的学习途径,没有之一。最差的老师也比初学者的专业素质要高,况且任何一个学校都会有高水平的老师。选择方面可参考之前的回答。

        GIS相关学生如何提高专业相关知识?

除了大学课程,自学是你区域别其它同学和跳跃式提升自我的最佳途径,千里之行,始于足下。如何成为GIS大牛,可参看之前的回答:

        地理信息科学专业,大一学了一学期感觉没学到什么,想问问如果自学成大神的话要学什么东西能做什么牛逼的事?

总之,1、专业基础知识。2、GIS基础平台与应用实践。3、计算机编程、数据库、数据结构与算法。是三大核心内容。至于具体学习方式和方法,因素太多,你的学校资源,自身所处环境等都会有影响,寻求最适合自己的。而这三点,对未来是选择科研还是走向业界,都适用。

 

 

本文授权转载于知乎用户“地理小子”,作者系南京师范大学地理学博士!

 

  • 打赏

x

  • 微信
  • 支付宝
除特殊注明外,资料来源于网络,仅供学习,请于24小时内 删除
吾爱地理 » 初学者如何学习GIS?
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Reading your article has greatly helped me, and I agree with you. But I still have some questions. Can you help me? I will pay attention to your answer. thank you.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Reading your article has greatly helped me, and I agree with you. But I still have some questions. Can you help me? I will pay attention to your answer. thank you.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I really like reading through a post that can make men and women think. Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Good post! We will be linking to this particularly great post on our site. Keep up the great writing
Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
This was beautiful Admin. Thank you for your reflections.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
I truly appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Your point of view caught my eye and was very interesting. Thanks. I have a question for you.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
This was beautiful Admin. Thank you for your reflections.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
I don't think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.
Thanks for sharing. I read many of your blog posts, cool, your blog is very good.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Good post! We will be linking to this particularly great post on our site. Keep up the great writing
Awesome! Its genuinely remarkable post, I have got much clear idea regarding from this post
This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am really happy to read everthing at one place
This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am really happy to read everthing at one place
I very delighted to find this internet site on bing, just what I was searching for as well saved to fav
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
Your article helped me a lot, is there any more related content? Thanks!
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I do not even understand how I ended up here, but I assumed this publish used to be great
I appreciate you sharing this blog post. Thanks Again. Cool.
There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all the points you made
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
Hi there to all, for the reason that I am genuinely keen of reading this website’s post to be updated on a regular basis. It carries pleasant stuff.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all the points you made
Very well presented. Every quote was awesome and thanks for sharing the content. Keep sharing and keep motivating others.
You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
Awesome! Its genuinely remarkable post, I have got much clear idea regarding from this post
This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!
For the reason that the admin of this site is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be renowned, due to its quality contents.
I like the efforts you have put in this, regards for all the great content.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
Thank you for your sharing. I am worried that I lack creative ideas. It is your article that makes me full of hope. Thank you. But, I have a question, can you help me?
Can you be more specific about the content of your article? After reading it, I still have some doubts. Hope you can help me.
I like the efforts you have put in this, regards for all the great content.
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I truly appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will
Pretty! This has been a really wonderful post. Many thanks for providing these details.
I am truly thankful to the owner of this web site who has shared this fantastic piece of writing at at this place.
I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles
naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.
I really like reading through a post that can make men and women think. Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!
Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites
very informative articles or reviews at this time.
This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!
Great information shared.. really enjoyed reading this post thank you author for sharing this post .. appreciated
I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.
very informative articles or reviews at this time.