高中地理学习方法系列:(十三)区域地理学习指南

高中区域地理学习指南

地球表面的区域是高考的平台,以某一区域为背景,综合考察自然、人文等基本地理知识、方法、技能,是高考命题的基本思路。所以,认识区域、了解区域的基本特征便成为做题的第一道关口。

1. 复习要求及方法指导

中国地理和世界地理所涉及的范围很广,区域本身又是有层次的,大的区域下面还可以再分小的区域。这大大小小的区域很多,我们是绝对不可能都去复习的。但它们都有可能成为高考所借用的平台。即使在我们平时的测验中,也可能会用到一个我们并不熟悉的区域。是不是说我们的复习还要更细致呢?没有必要!因为区域在这里只是一个平台,考试的重点是这个平台之上所承载的地理思维和方法,而这种思维和方法是共性的,是我们复习任何一个区域时都会涉及的,只是换了一种环境去运用。也就是说,做题的第一步是区域的判断,但考试的重点不在于此,而在于思维和方法的运用。因此我们复习时要特别注意以下几个方面:

认识地球表面大的地理单元,建立一个宏观框架。

我们需要掌握的最大区域单位是七大洲和四大洋。包括它们的大体形状、相对位置关系、及绝对位置(经纬度位置)。其中对经纬度位置的掌握是基本。 比如,我们可以从赤道和本初子午线开始,每隔 30 ° 画一条纬线和经线,在这个经纬网格图上大体勾勒出七大洲的位置。通过多次练习逐渐熟悉。为后续的学习搭好一个平台。

在宏观区域的基础上,能够进行逐级的区域划分,让区域的层次愈来愈清晰。

在这个过程中,把我们常用的区域逐渐勾勒出来。像东亚、西亚、南亚、中国、中国北方、南方、青藏地区等。这样做的好处是:认清区域的从属关系,把区域放到一个更广阔的背景下,以一种开放的、联系的视角去看待区域,解决问题,避免孤立地分析区域。 例如:我们来看一下中国的位置,位于亚欧大陆的东部 ,太平洋的西岸,是东亚五国中面积最大的国家。北接北亚(俄罗斯西伯利亚地区)、西连中亚,南为南亚,东南与东南亚各国相邻或隔海相望。而亚洲西接欧洲,西南接非洲。好了,关于中国的区域位置就先分析到这,现在,我们在此基础上来分析几道问题,看一下眼界是不是更开阔了。 1 、为了保障我国的能源安全,应该广辟进口渠道,你能为此找到几条路线? 2 、我国的气候分别和哪些地区有相似性 ?

在大的框架上 ,逐步添加典型经纬线和地理事物,对区域进行标识。

经过多次练习,逐渐熟悉基本的区域之后,我们就可以进行一些细节的添加了,包括:典型经纬线、主要山脉、河流、城市等。首先,这些事物往往是我们考试的重点。另外,由于它们的位置或形状典型,便于记忆,是我们进行区域定位的标识,还可以作为其它事物定位的参考点。 例如: 8 0 ° W , 经过美国华盛顿、巴拿马运河; 南美大陆在其东侧,而北美大陆大部分在其西侧。 北京的经纬度位置是( 40 ° N,116 ° E ),长江河道的中下游基上以 30 ° N 为轴线蜿蜒流过。三江平原典型的水系组成,东北平原三面环山的地形特点。记住这些典型的点、线、地理事物,不仅有利于我们及时判断出该区域,还方便我们以此为参照推理出所考查的区域。

做到 以上三个方面说明我们的空间定位和区域判断能力已经具备,也就是说,你已经能顺利通过第一关了。能否得到高分,就看你的区域分析能力了。如何提高我们的区域分析能力?我们应该做到以下两个方面。

学会区域分析的基本方法。

掌握必要的区域分析方法,是我们解答一切区域类问题的基础。对区域的学习基本上可以分为两步进行:

第一步,建立内容框架。区域是一个由各种 自然事物和人文现象组成的错综复杂的实体,所以,区域之间的差异性是非常明显的,但是,每个区域都是由以下三个方面构成的:位置范围、自然地理环境(地形、气候、水文、土壤、植被等)、人文地理环境(农业、工业、交通运输、人口、城市等),我们可以把以上内容列成一个框架,学习每个区域的时候都按这个框架去套一套。这样就能做到轻松而全面地掌握知识,了解区域概况

第二步,建立内容之间的联系。区域各组成要素之间是有联系的,认识他们之间的联系,并能利用必修一二两册所学的基本理论进行分析( 见必修二学法建议三和必修三学法建议 )。以上两步坚持实施,就会帮我们练就扎实的区域分析基本功。

在大脑里为你所学过的区域建立一个快捷键

不管什么时候以什么形式考到一个区域,都能尽快在大脑里把它或与它相似的区域搜索出来,顺利进行迁移运用。那么,我们的脑子里应该有一个快捷键。这个快捷键是什么呢?它应该是一个承载着相关知 识和问题的区域图。也就是说地理知识不是抽象的文字,我们在记地理知识的时候,头脑里应该有一幅图,并把所记忆的内容在图上找一个合适的地方存放。实践证明,这样记住的知识最容易被灵活运用。努力学会这种记忆方法吧。

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吾爱地理 » 高中地理学习方法系列:(十三)区域地理学习指南
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