高中地理学习方法系列:(十二)必修三学习指南

高中地理必修三学习指南

必修三充分体现了高中地理的发展方向,即:时代性和实用性。综合运用前两册所学地理知识,为区域的发展进行谋划。所以说必修三是必修一、二的提升,是地理学习的落脚点,最能体现地理学的价值。

1. 心理准备

必修三的学习能极大提高大家地理素养和分析解决实际问题的能力,尤其是宏观地把握区域、综合地分析问题的能力。但由于此时已接近高一学年末,或已进入高二,受多种因素的影响,部分同学学习兴趣 开始减弱,错失这一自我提升的机会。因此,这时我们也要特别注意心态的调整。

享受学习过程,注重长足发展

以区域为载体,全面分析区域地理环境,找出存在问题,探寻最佳解决途径,是必修三册内容的主线,也是课堂教学的基本线索。实际教学过程中,教师一般会领着大家去分析前两个案例,当同学们初步掌握了区域分析方法后,会安排同学们自主学习,或合作学习。在学习过程中,你会发现自己从未如此近距离地面对一个地区,系统地梳理它,真切地体会它的问题所在,并且要如此正视问题,实实在在地找出解决的途径。你会觉得自己就像一个运筹帷幄的决策者,享受这一学习过程吧。

甩开消极心理暗示,主动学习

本册学习的难点之一在于学习内容的宏观性与我们思维的局限性之间的矛盾。在必修前两册学习过程中,我们也会分析解决一些实际问题。但所面对的问题大都是单一的、明确的,而问题所出现的区域也往往是理想而单纯的,也就是说我们思考问题的方向基本是明确的,我们只要顺着线索一步步往下推理基本上就可以得到结论。而现在我们所面对的是一个真实的区域,它是由各种自然事物和人文现象组成的错综复杂的实体,问题及问题所产生的原因都不是单纯的,而要解决问题必须本着可持续发展的基本原则,即要兼顾社会、经济、生态三大方面。面对这样一个宏观而复杂的问题时,思维的局限性会让我们感觉到茫然,由此引发一种消极的心理暗示。那怎么办呢?没什么大不了,积极的投入课堂学习吧,学完本册内容,问题也就解决了。因为本册的教学目的就是 大提高大家这种能力。

2. 学法建议

在实际学习过程中,我们遇到的最大问题有两方面:一方面,线索太长。从区域背景到问题产生再到问题解决的途径,战线拉得太长,我们难以做到首尾兼顾。其次,每一方面用的篇幅太长,往往看了后面忘前面。另外,为了说明问题,往往加入一些小的知识点,如果太注意这些小知识点就会干扰对内容的整体把握,如果不管,又怕考试考到。以上问题,我们可以通过列框架的方法来解决。具体做法通过一个课例来说明。

课例:能源资源的开发 —- 以我国山西省为例

第一步,梳理出本节课的主干知识。本节内容分为四部分。 第一部分为:资源开发条件。从三个方面来说明: 1 、煤炭资源丰富,开采条件好。 2 、市场广阔。 3 、位置适中,交通便利。第二部分为:能源基地建设。从三个方面进行: 1 、扩大煤炭开采。 2 、提高晋 煤外运能力。 3 、加强煤炭的加工转换。第三部分:能源的综合利用。从三条产业链的构建和综合利用的结果两个方面说明问题。第四部分:环境的保护与治理。从工矿区的建设、“三废”的治理、调整产业结构三方面来说明。

第二步,分析各部分之间的逻辑关系,列出知识框架。 首先,资源开发条件是进行能源基地建设和能源的综合利用的基础。其次,改革开放初期本区发展的现状:产业结构单一、经济效益低下、生态环境恶化 ,这 又成为后三部分的直接原因。

第三步,知识细节的填充: 、能源资源的分类。首先我们要明确山西的案例为非可再生能源的可持续开发利用。 、本区煤质优良表现在三低一高;主要煤田:大同优质动力煤,河东主焦煤;开采条件好:中厚煤层,埋藏浅,适于露天开采和大规模机械化作业。 、中国与世界主要能源消费结构。 、三条运煤专线。 资源基础:煤矿、铁矿、铝土矿。 结果:产业结构由单一变多元。 生态环境建设模式。 “三废”的治理。 一方面:对原有重化工业进行调整,另一方面:大力发展农业、轻纺工业、高新技术产业、旅游业,降低重化工业的比重。

 

高中地理必修三学习指南

通过以上案例我们可以看到:这种知识框架的设计让我们既能整体把握宏观又兼顾微观。当然,同学们在学习过程中要充分发挥自己的创造性,找到适合自己的学习方法。但是无论怎么学,我们都要始终注意以下几点:

注意多读课本,书读百遍其义自见。

本部分一节课的课文就好像是一篇议论文,是值得大家去仔细研读的。多读几遍,线索自然就明确了。而且,越读越能发现问题,理解就越是深刻到位。

注意在各部分之间找到逻辑联系,做到有针对性地寻找解决途径。

头脑里有了一个宏观框架之后,要积极寻找出各部分之间的内在联系。尤其是明确问题产生的根源和直接原因,然后有针对性地去分析如何解决,措施就明朗多了。

明确细节性知识点的出处, 利于快速记忆和 运用。

对于细节性知识点,不要埋头就背。这样很容易因小失大。先记住宏观结构,然后记住该知识点的出处,另行背诵,效果更佳。

由于选修人文社会方向的同学在将来的高考中要考地理,所以这里还要特别说说区域地理学习(中国地理和世界地理)和如何提高答题能力两方面。

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吾爱地理 » 高中地理学习方法系列:(十二)必修三学习指南
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