遥感考研真题集

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中国科学院研究生院《遥感概论》考试大纲

本《遥感概论》考试大纲适用于中国科学院研究生院地图学与地理信息系统、自然地理学、环境科学等专业的硕士研究生入学考试。《遥感概论》的主要内容包括遥感的物理基础与成像机理、遥感图像处理与分析和遥感应用等。要求考生对其基本概念有较深入的了解,能够系统地掌握地物电磁波谱和数字图像处理的基本内容,掌握遥感对地观测技术和方法,并具有综合应用遥感信息分析地理现象和特征的能力。

一、考试内容

(一)遥感的基本概念

1、遥感的概念、特点、类型

2、遥感系统的组成

3、遥感的发展概况及其展望

(二)遥感的物理基础

1、电磁波谱与电磁辐射

2、太阳辐射及大气对辐射的影响

3、地球辐射与地物波谱

(三)遥感成像原理与图像特征

1、遥感平台,摄影成像、扫描成像及微波成像的原理及图像特征

2、常用遥感图像(TM、ETM+、SPOT、CBERS、MODIS等)的基本技术参数和各波段的主要应用范围等

3、遥感图像的特征(空间、时间、光谱、辐射分辨率)

(四)遥感信息提取

1、遥感图像(光学图像和数字图像)的基础知识

2、遥感图像目视解译原理、解译标志及解译方法

3、遥感图像的校正与增强处理方法

4、遥感图像计算机分类

(五)遥感的应用

1、了解遥感在植被、水体、土壤及地质、环境等方面的应用

2、3S技术的综合应用

二、考试要求

(一)遥感的基本概念

理解并掌握遥感的基本概念、特点、类型,了解遥感过程及其技术系统;

了解遥感的发展与前景。

(二)遥感的物理基础

理解并掌握电磁波、电磁波谱及电磁辐射等基本概念与专业术语;理解并掌握太阳辐射及大气对太阳辐射的影响;理解并掌握地球辐射与地物波谱;掌握反射率及反射波谱等基本概念,掌握常见地物反射波谱特征,理解环境对地物光谱特性的影响。

(三)遥感平台与遥感成像

了解遥感平台;理解并掌握光学遥感和微波遥感的成像机理和图像特征;了解目前常用的传感器及其主要技术参数和各波段的主要应用范围等;熟悉遥感图像的特征。

(四)遥感信息提取

掌握光学和数字图像的基础知识;了解遥感图像的目视解译;理解并基本掌握遥感图像校正与增强处理方法;掌握遥感图像的分类过程及主要方法。

(五)遥感的应用

对遥感在植被、水体、土壤及地质、环境等方面的应用及3S技术有一定的认识和实际经验。

三、参考书目

1. 梅安新等,《遥感导论》,北京:高等教育出版社,2001.

2. 吕国楷,洪启旺等,《遥感概论》,北京:高等教育出版社,1994.

  1. 赵英时等,《遥感应用分析原理与方法》,北京:科学出版社,2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

《遥感概论》硕士研究生入学考试试题汇编

 

  • 名词解释

    • 遥感
    • 遥感平台
    • 微波遥感
    • 热红外遥感
    • 成像光谱仪
    • 辐射亮度
    • 光谱反射率
    • 电磁波谱
    • 瑞利散射
    • 大气窗口
    • 近极轨卫星
    • 后向散射
    • 波粒二象性
    • 图像空间分辨率
    • 图像辐射分辨率
    • 图像光谱分辨率
    • 高光谱遥感
    • 假彩色合成遥感图象
    • 真彩色合成遥感图象
    • NDVI
    • 植被指数
    • 图像融合
    • 非监督分类
    • 色调
    • 纹理特征
    • 边缘检测
    • 数字影像
    • 大气校正
  • 判断对错

 

  • 遥感图像上只能分辨大于分辨率的地物
  • 红外遥感比可见光遥感大气透过率高
  • 热红外遥感夜间不能成像
  • 辐射纠正是消除辐射量失真的处理过程,大气纠正是消除大气影响的处理过程
  • 专题制图仪TM(Thematic Mapper)是NOAA气象卫星上携带的传感器。
  • 可见光波段的波长范围是38-0.76mm
  • 利用人工发射源,获取地物反射波的遥感方式叫做被动遥感。
  • 在军事遥感中,利用热红外波段可以识别绿色植物伪装
  • 空间分辨率是指一个影像上能详细区分的最小单元的大小,常用的表现形式有:像元、像解率和视场角。
  • 水在蓝光波段反射率稍高,到近红外波段,水成了全吸收体
  • 气象卫星遥感数据只能应用于气象领域
  • 直方图均衡化是一种把原图像的直方图变换为各灰度值频率固定的直方图的变换
  • 太阳辐射能量主要集中在3-3μm,最大值为0.47μm。

 

 

 

  • 问答题

 

  • 遥感技术具有哪些特点?遥感技术可应用在哪些领域?
  • 什么是大气窗口?常用于遥感的大气窗口有哪些?
  • 植被、水体、土壤、岩石在不同波段图像上的光谱特征及标准假彩色图像上的颜色
  • 晴空时大气对可见光遥感和红外遥感的影响有何特点
  • 近红外遥感机理与在植被监测中的应用
  • 遥感影像增强处理的目的,列举一种增强处理方法,说明其原理和步骤
  • 遥感图像增强处理有哪些方法?写出其中一种方法的算法
  • 遥感图像计算机处理的主要方法有哪些?
  • 非监督分类和监督分类方法的区别与联系
  • 遥感图象解译标志(判读标志)有哪些?结合实例说明它们如何在图象解译中的应用
  • 试述遥感图像目视解译的方法及其过程。
  • 常用的遥感影像目视解译方法有哪些?试举例说明他们的应用。
  • 遥感图像分类方法有哪几类?他们各有什么特点?
  • 如何运用形状特征、纹理特征和地物空间位置来提高遥感图像分类精度?
  • 结合自己的专业设计一个遥感应用的实例(包括遥感数据获取、处理及结果)
  • 论述陆地资源卫星的特点及其应用范围中国科学院研究生院《遥感概论》考试大纲

    本《遥感概论》考试大纲适用于中国科学院研究生院地图学与地理信息系统、自然地理学、环境科学等专业的硕士研究生入学考试。《遥感概论》的主要内容包括遥感的物理基础与成像机理、遥感图像处理与分析和遥感应用等。要求考生对其基本概念有较深入的了解,能够系统地掌握地物电磁波谱和数字图像处理的基本内容,掌握遥感对地观测技术和方法,并具有综合应用遥感信息分析地理现象和特征的能力。

    一、考试内容

    (一)遥感的基本概念

    1、遥感的概念、特点、类型

    2、遥感系统的组成

    3、遥感的发展概况及其展望

    (二)遥感的物理基础

    1、电磁波谱与电磁辐射

    2、太阳辐射及大气对辐射的影响

    3、地球辐射与地物波谱

    (三)遥感成像原理与图像特征

    1、遥感平台,摄影成像、扫描成像及微波成像的原理及图像特征

    2、常用遥感图像(TM、ETM+、SPOT、CBERS、MODIS等)的基本技术参数和各波段的主要应用范围等

    3、遥感图像的特征(空间、时间、光谱、辐射分辨率)

    (四)遥感信息提取

    1、遥感图像(光学图像和数字图像)的基础知识

    2、遥感图像目视解译原理、解译标志及解译方法

    3、遥感图像的校正与增强处理方法

    4、遥感图像计算机分类

    (五)遥感的应用

    1、了解遥感在植被、水体、土壤及地质、环境等方面的应用

    2、3S技术的综合应用

    二、考试要求

    (一)遥感的基本概念

    理解并掌握遥感的基本概念、特点、类型,了解遥感过程及其技术系统;

    了解遥感的发展与前景。

    (二)遥感的物理基础

    理解并掌握电磁波、电磁波谱及电磁辐射等基本概念与专业术语;理解并掌握太阳辐射及大气对太阳辐射的影响;理解并掌握地球辐射与地物波谱;掌握反射率及反射波谱等基本概念,掌握常见地物反射波谱特征,理解环境对地物光谱特性的影响。

    (三)遥感平台与遥感成像

    了解遥感平台;理解并掌握光学遥感和微波遥感的成像机理和图像特征;了解目前常用的传感器及其主要技术参数和各波段的主要应用范围等;熟悉遥感图像的特征。

    (四)遥感信息提取

    掌握光学和数字图像的基础知识;了解遥感图像的目视解译;理解并基本掌握遥感图像校正与增强处理方法;掌握遥感图像的分类过程及主要方法。

    (五)遥感的应用

    对遥感在植被、水体、土壤及地质、环境等方面的应用及3S技术有一定的认识和实际经验。

    三、参考书目

    1. 梅安新等,《遥感导论》,北京:高等教育出版社,2001.

    2. 吕国楷,洪启旺等,《遥感概论》,北京:高等教育出版社,1994.

    1. 赵英时等,《遥感应用分析原理与方法》,北京:科学出版社,2003.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    《遥感概论》硕士研究生入学考试试题汇编

     

    • 名词解释

      • 遥感
      • 遥感平台
      • 微波遥感
      • 热红外遥感
      • 成像光谱仪
      • 辐射亮度
      • 光谱反射率
      • 电磁波谱
      • 瑞利散射
      • 大气窗口
      • 近极轨卫星
      • 后向散射
      • 波粒二象性
      • 图像空间分辨率
      • 图像辐射分辨率
      • 图像光谱分辨率
      • 高光谱遥感
      • 假彩色合成遥感图象
      • 真彩色合成遥感图象
      • NDVI
      • 植被指数
      • 图像融合
      • 非监督分类
      • 色调
      • 纹理特征
      • 边缘检测
      • 数字影像
      • 大气校正
    • 判断对错

     

    • 遥感图像上只能分辨大于分辨率的地物
    • 红外遥感比可见光遥感大气透过率高
    • 热红外遥感夜间不能成像
    • 辐射纠正是消除辐射量失真的处理过程,大气纠正是消除大气影响的处理过程
    • 专题制图仪TM(Thematic Mapper)是NOAA气象卫星上携带的传感器。
    • 可见光波段的波长范围是38-0.76mm
    • 利用人工发射源,获取地物反射波的遥感方式叫做被动遥感。
    • 在军事遥感中,利用热红外波段可以识别绿色植物伪装
    • 空间分辨率是指一个影像上能详细区分的最小单元的大小,常用的表现形式有:像元、像解率和视场角。
    • 水在蓝光波段反射率稍高,到近红外波段,水成了全吸收体
    • 气象卫星遥感数据只能应用于气象领域
    • 直方图均衡化是一种把原图像的直方图变换为各灰度值频率固定的直方图的变换
    • 太阳辐射能量主要集中在3-3μm,最大值为0.47μm。

     

     

     

    • 问答题

     

    • 遥感技术具有哪些特点?遥感技术可应用在哪些领域?
    • 什么是大气窗口?常用于遥感的大气窗口有哪些?
    • 植被、水体、土壤、岩石在不同波段图像上的光谱特征及标准假彩色图像上的颜色
    • 晴空时大气对可见光遥感和红外遥感的影响有何特点
    • 近红外遥感机理与在植被监测中的应用
    • 遥感影像增强处理的目的,列举一种增强处理方法,说明其原理和步骤
    • 遥感图像增强处理有哪些方法?写出其中一种方法的算法
    • 遥感图像计算机处理的主要方法有哪些?
    • 非监督分类和监督分类方法的区别与联系
    • 遥感图象解译标志(判读标志)有哪些?结合实例说明它们如何在图象解译中的应用
    • 试述遥感图像目视解译的方法及其过程。
    • 常用的遥感影像目视解译方法有哪些?试举例说明他们的应用。
    • 遥感图像分类方法有哪几类?他们各有什么特点?
    • 如何运用形状特征、纹理特征和地物空间位置来提高遥感图像分类精度?
    • 结合自己的专业设计一个遥感应用的实例(包括遥感数据获取、处理及结果)
    • 论述陆地资源卫星的特点及其应用范围
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吾爱地理 » 遥感考研真题集
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