地理坐标

地理坐标
地理坐标:用地理经度和地理纬度表示地面上点的位置的球面坐标叫地理坐标。地理坐标系的基圈是地球赤道,它相当于平面直角坐标系中的横轴;始圈是本初子午线,应相当于平面直角坐标系中的纵轴。
经线:经过地轴的平面同地球表面相割的大圆叫经线圈,经线圈被南北两极分成的半圆叫做经线,也叫子午线。经线是等长的,它代表地球表面的南北方向。经过英国格林尼治天文台旧址的那条经线被定为本初子午线,即0°经线。西经20°和东经160°两条经线组成的经线圈把地球分为东、西两半球。
经度:即地理经度,是本地子午面同本初子午面之间的二面角。从本初子午面开始,沿地球赤道向东、西两个方向度量,到点所在的子午面为止(各从0°~180°),向东度量叫东经,向西度量叫西经。有时也采用从本初子午面向东度量(从0°到360°)的做法。
纬线:垂直于地轴的平面同地球表面相交所成的圆叫纬线圈,也叫纬线。纬线的长度各不相等,平面到地心的距离越近,纬线越长。经过地心的平面截得的纬线最长,是地面上的最大圆,叫做地球赤道,也是0°纬线。赤道把地球分为南、北两半球。纬线互相平行。从两极看,纬线呈同心圆状。纬线代表地面上的东西方向。
纬度:即地理纬度,是本地纬线同地球赤道平面的线面角。从赤道向两极各从0°到90°,向北叫北纬,向南叫南纬,有时也用0°到±90°来表示,即北为正,南为负。

 

 

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吾爱地理 » 地理坐标
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