造山运动、沉积作用、搬运作用、侵蚀作用

造山运动
造山运动指地壳局部受力,岩石急剧变形而大规模隆起形成山脉的运动。仅影响地壳局部的狭长地带。其速度快、幅度大、范围广,常引起地势高低的巨大变化;同时,随着岩层的强烈变形也有水平方向上的位移,形成复杂的褶皱和断裂构造。褶皱断裂、岩浆活动和变质作用是造山运动的主要标志。

 

沉积作用
沉积作用指的是被搬运的物质因介质性能改变,不能继续搬运而发生的沉淀或堆积过程。堆积下来的物质称沉积物。固体状态的搬运物质,因搬运动能减小,或因搬运物的量超过其搬运能力,受重力作用而沉积,称机械沉积,如河谷中的沙砾沉积。真溶液或胶体溶液状态的搬运物质,因介质的物理化学条件改变而沉积,称化学沉积,如海水中的盐类物质通过海水的蒸发浓缩作用而发生沉积,及胶体溶液通过胶体的凝聚作用而沉积。通过生物的生命活动也能发生沉积,称生物沉积,如海水中生物吸取各种物质而生长繁殖,同时制造沉积物,或以其遗体堆积下来成为沉积物。

 

搬运作用
搬运作用指的是各种外营力风化和侵蚀形成的破碎物质在介质中迁移的过程。如流水搬运作用、冰川搬运作用、风力搬运作用等。其中以流水搬运作用较为明显和普遍。

 

侵蚀作用
侵蚀作用指的是岩石在风、流水、冰川、波浪和海流等外营力作用下,松散的岩石碎屑从高处向低处移动的作用过程。侵蚀作用包括岩石转变为疏松状态的风化过程和把风化破碎物移去的搬运过程。侵蚀作用的破坏动力首先是太阳辐射能和生物能,它们使岩石分解、破碎,然后在重力作用下,通过水、空气、冰等运动介质,携带风化的疏松物质迁移,或岩体内部产生密度差异而形成突发性移动。侵蚀作用(搬运松散物质运动)的方式有线状(如河流、山岳冰川)和面状(坡流、土流、地滑、山崩、溶塌)两种。侵蚀作用的结果是消除凸地。按外营力的性质可分为水蚀、冰蚀、浪蚀、风蚀、海蚀等。

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吾爱地理 » 造山运动、沉积作用、搬运作用、侵蚀作用
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