海沟、裂谷、断层、褶皱

海沟
海沟是指海底中幽深而狭长的槽状凹地。海沟分布于大洋的边缘,大陆或岛弧的外侧,是洋壳板块向陆壳板块下方俯冲和弯曲下潜而形成的深槽形态。海沟一般长几千千米,两侧斜坡陡峻,上部宽几千米至百余米。一般深度超过6000米,有的可逾万米,著名的马里亚纳海沟中的斐查兹海渊深11034米,为已知的世界海洋中的最深点。

 

裂谷
裂谷又称断裂谷、线状地堑,是两条大致平行的断层间的岩块下沉所形成的窄而长的谷地。东非大裂谷是大陆地壳最大的裂谷地带。

 

断层
断层是地壳岩层因受力而产生断裂的现象。由于地壳岩层的承受力是有一定限度的,当地壳运动时产生的挤压力和拉伸力超出了岩层脆弱部的承受力,岩层便会破裂,破裂两侧的岩块会出现显著的相互位移和错动现象,从而产生断层。在地貌上,大的断层常常形成裂谷或陡崖,如著名的东非大裂谷、我国华山北坡大断崖等。断层一侧上升的岩块,常成为块状山体或高地,这种由断层造就的山体被称做断层山,又叫断块山,如我国的华山、庐山等;另一侧则常形成谷地或低地,如我国的渭河平原、汾河谷地。在断层构造地带,由于岩石破碎,易受风化侵蚀,常常发育成沟谷、河流。

 

褶皱
当岩层受到地壳运动产生的强大挤压作用时,便会发生弯曲变形,这叫做褶皱。由地壳运动形成的褶皱岩层所组成的山体,称做褶皱山。世界许多高大的山脉,如喜马拉雅山、阿尔卑斯山、安第斯山等,都是褶皱山脉。它们是由地壳板块相互碰撞、挤压,在板块交界处发生大规模褶皱隆起而形成的。褶皱有背斜和向斜两种基本形态。背斜岩层一般向上拱起,向斜岩层一般向下弯曲。在地貌上,背斜常成为山岭,向斜常成为谷地或盆地。但是,不少褶皱构造的背斜顶部因受张力,容易被侵蚀成谷地,而向斜槽部受到挤压,岩性坚硬不易被侵蚀,反而成为山岭。

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吾爱地理 » 海沟、裂谷、断层、褶皱
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