丹霞地貌、黄土地貌、喀斯特地貌、雅丹地貌

丹霞地貌
丹霞地貌,属于红层地貌,是一种水平构造地貌。它是指红色砂岩经长期风化剥离和流水侵蚀,形成孤立的山峰和陡峭的奇岩怪石,是巨厚红色沙、砾岩层中沿垂直节理发育的各种丹霞奇峰的总称。主要发育于侏罗纪至第三纪的水平或缓倾的红色地层中,这种地形以广东北部的丹霞山最为典型,所以称为丹霞地貌。它主要分布在中国、美国西部、中欧和澳大利亚等地,以中国分布最广。丹霞地貌最突出的特点是“赤壁丹崖”广泛发育,形成了顶平、身陡、麓缓的方山、石墙、石峰、石柱等奇险的地貌形态。

 

黄土地貌
黄土地貌指的是发育在黄土(包括黄土状土)地层中的地貌。黄土分布面积约占地球陆地面积的1/10,以中国黄土高原的厚度最大(一般为100~200米,最厚处为336米),发育的黄土地貌最典型。沟壑众多、地面支离破碎、崎岖起伏、现代侵蚀异常强烈,是黄土地貌的突出特点。塑造黄土地貌的外动力有水力、风力、重力和人力。黄土地貌的基本类型有黄土塬,黄土梁、黄土峁和各类沟谷。黄土塬和各类沟谷构成的地貌类型区,称为黄土高塬沟壑区,以梁、峁、丘陵为主体的构成黄土丘陵沟壑区。黄土区的沟谷分古代沟谷和现代沟谷。

 

喀斯特地貌
喀斯特地貌指可溶岩(主要是分布最广的碳酸盐岩)经以溶蚀为先导的喀斯特作用,形成地面坎坷嶙峋,地下洞穴发育的特殊地貌。喀斯特一词源自南斯拉夫西北部喀尔斯高原地名,现已成为国际通用术语。喀斯特地表形态类型属正地形的主要有峰林、孤峰、残丘、喀斯特丘陵和石芽。负地形主要类型有落水洞、斗淋、竖井、盲谷、干谷、喀斯特洼地、波立谷、喀斯特平原、喀斯特嶂谷(峡谷)、溶沟与溶隙等。喀斯特地貌因形态奇特和地下洞穴,以及一些洞穴空气和水的特性与有益成分而成为旅游资源,如中国桂林山水、云南路南石林等。

 

雅丹地貌
在中国内陆荒漠里,有一种奇特的地理景观,它是一列列断断续续延伸的长条形土墩与凹地沟槽间隔分布的地貌组合,这种地貌被称为雅丹地貌。20世纪初中外学者对罗布泊进行联合考察时,在罗布泊西北部的古楼兰附近,发现了这种奇特的地貌,并根据维族人对此的称呼命名为“雅丹”。雅丹地貌在世界上许多干旱地区都可以找到。中国雅丹地貌在新疆分布最多,除了罗布泊和古楼兰一带的雅丹外,克拉玛依的“魔鬼城”、奇台的“风城”等也都是典型的雅丹地貌。

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吾爱地理 » 丹霞地貌、黄土地貌、喀斯特地貌、雅丹地貌
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