沼泽、雪线、大陆冰川、大陆架

沼泽
沼泽指的是地表过湿或有薄层积水,土壤水分几乎达到饱和,并有泥炭堆积,生长着喜湿性和喜水性沼生植物的地段。地球上除南极尚未发现沼泽外,其他各地均有沼泽分布。沼泽可分为泥炭沼泽和潜育沼泽两大类,按生长植物的不同,又可分为木本沼泽、草本沼泽和苔藓沼泽三类。西西伯利亚低地有着地球上最大的泥炭沼泽区,它堆积了地球上全部泥炭的40%。沼泽地是纤维植物、药用植物、蜜源植物的天然宝库,也是珍贵鸟类、鱼类栖息、繁殖和育肥的良好场所。此外,沼泽还具有湿润气候、净化环境的功能。

 

雪线
雪线指的是常年积雪的下界,即年降雪量与年消融量相等的平衡线。雪线以上年降雪量大于年消融量,降雪逐年累积,形成常年积雪,进而变成粒雪和冰川冰,发育冰川。雪线是一种气候标志线。其分布高度主要决定于气温、降水量和地形条件。高度从低纬向高纬地区降低,反映了气温的影响。地形通过影响气温和降水而间接影响雪线高度。北半球在同一山地,南坡的雪线通常比北坡高。雪线高度不仅有空间差异,在时间上也有一定变化。空气变冷、变湿,导致雪线降低;反之,引起雪线上升。这种变化有季节性的,也有多年性的。

 

大陆冰川
大陆冰川指的是基本覆盖着整个岛屿与大陆的巨大冰块,又称大陆冰盖或冰被。是补给区占优势的冰川,其特点是面积大、冰层巨厚,可达数千米,分布不受下伏地形限制。冰川呈盾形,中间最高,向四周呈辐射状流动。地球上有两大冰盖,即南极冰盖和格陵兰冰盖,它们占世界冰川总体积的99%,其中南极冰盖占90%。

 

大陆架
大陆架由绕大陆的浅海地带构成。从海岸线(多指低潮线)起,直到海底坡度急剧增加的陆架坡折处都属大陆架。大陆架是陆地向海洋的自然延伸部分,也称“陆棚”。总面积约占世界大洋的7.5%。大陆架平均水深130米,有些地方可超过200米。大陆架的宽度不等,有的几乎为零,有的宽达1000千米,平均宽度78千米。一般与平原相连的陆架较宽,与山地相连的陆架较窄。全世界的大陆架共有2710万平方千米,其中尤以亚洲大陆架面积最大。大陆架的外缘常有堤状隆起,称陆架边缘堤,堤外即为大陆坡。浅海大陆架一般都拥有丰富的鱼类和矿产资源。

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吾爱地理 » 沼泽、雪线、大陆冰川、大陆架
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