河网、潜水、水系、流域

河网
河网指由大小不等、深浅不一的河槽相互贯通组成的网络状泄水系统。不仅包括经常有水流的河道,还包括地下暗河和小而浅的地面水沟,它们只在暴雨或融雪时才有水流通过。河网的最主要特征为河网密度,以流域内干支流总长度和流域面积之比来表示。

 

潜水
潜水指的是埋藏在地表以下第一稳定隔水层之上、具有自由表面的重力水。潜水的自由表面称潜水面;潜水面的绝对标高称为潜水位;潜水面距地面的距离称为潜水埋藏深度;自潜水面向下到隔水层顶板之间的距离称为含水层的厚度。在重力作用下,由潜水位较高处向潜水位较低处流动,形成潜流。同一地区,潜水埋藏深度及含水层厚度,有季节变化,多雨季节,补给量较多,因而含水层厚度增大,埋藏深度变浅;干旱季节则相反。潜水一般埋藏较浅,分布较广,便于开采,广泛地用做供水水源。但由于含水层之上无稳定隔水层存在,所以容易受到污染。

 

水系
河流的干流、支流和流域内的湖泊、沼泽或地下暗河等彼此连接组成的系统称为水系,又称河系。它汇聚全流域的地表水和地下水,最终注入海洋、湖泊或消失于荒漠。水系的名称通常以它的干流或以注入的湖泊、海洋命名,如长江水系、太湖水系、太平洋水系等。

 

流域
流域指一条河流或水系的集水区域,即分水线包围的区域。包括供河流地表水源的地面集水区和地下水源的地下集水区。如果地面集水区和地下集水区一致,称为闭合流域;不一致则称非闭合流域。流域面积是流域的重要特征,它不仅决定河流的水量,且影响径流的形成过程。在其他条件相同的情况下,流域面积越大,河流水量也越大。流域小的河流,强度大的暴雨往往笼罩全流域,容易造成洪水。

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吾爱地理 » 河网、潜水、水系、流域
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