三角洲
河流注入海洋、湖泊和水库等受水盆地,因坡降减小,流速降低,水流分散,动能减弱,其所挟带的泥沙便在河口区沉积下来,形成一片向海或向湖伸出的平地,外形常呈三角状,所以称为三角洲。三角洲的发育、演变主要受河流动力(流量、含沙量)和海洋动力或湖泊动力(波浪、潮汐)相互作用的控制,这些因素在不同地区有很大差异,故三角洲形态和沉积形式也复杂多样。三角洲主要有扇形、尖头形和鸟足形三种。中国的黄河三角洲和长江三角洲分别是扇形和尖头形三角洲的典型,而美国密西西比河三角洲则是典型的鸟足形三角洲。

 

冲击岛
冲击岛就是河流入海时,泥沙在口门附近堆积形成的沙岛。如我国的崇明岛。

 

冲积平原
冲积平原指的是河流搬运的碎屑物因流速减缓而逐渐堆积所形成的平原。其主要特征为地势平坦、沉积深厚、面积广大。如中国的华北平原主要由黄河、淮河和海河等大河合力堆积而成。冲积平原一般分为山前平原、中部平原和滨海平原三部分。

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