领海、公海、陆间海、内海

领海
领海是国家主权管辖的临接海岸的海域。目前,国际上对领海的宽度没有统一的标准。根据联合国1981年统计,148个沿海国家中有81个国家规定领海宽度为12海里,其余为3海里或200海里。

公海
公海又称国际海域,指各沿海国管辖范围以外的广大海洋。1982年通过的《联合国海洋法公约》第六十八条指出:公海部分的规定适用于不包括在国家的专属经济区、领海或内水或群岛国的群岛水域内的全部海域。国际海底区域是人类的共同财产。

 

陆间海
陆间海也称地中海或自然内海。在海洋学上,是指具有海洋的特质,但被陆地环绕,形成一个形似湖泊但具有海洋特质的海洋,一般与大洋之间仅以较窄的海峡相连。世界上最大的陆间海是地中海,最小的陆间海是土耳其海峡中的马尔马拉海。

 

内海
内海又称内陆海、封闭海或闭海、地中海,指四周被大陆或岛屿、群岛所包围,但有狭窄水道或海峡与大洋相通的海。全世界内海总面积达3184.9万平方千米,占世界海洋总面积的8.8%。内海又分为陆内海和陆间海。陆内海面积较小、平均深度浅、海底地貌较纯、深入一个大陆并受大陆影响较显著,如波罗的海、波斯湾、哈得孙湾等;陆间海面积大、平均深度较大、海底地质与地貌较复杂,位于几个大陆之间且受大陆影响相对较弱,如加勒比海、地中海、黑海、墨西哥湾等。

 

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吾爱地理 » 领海、公海、陆间海、内海
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