中科院-2012年土壤学考研真题

中国科学院研究生院
2012年招收攻读硕士学位研究生入学统一考试试题
科目名称:土壤学
考生须知:
1.本试卷滴分为150分,全部考试时间总计180分钟。
2.所有答案必须写在答题纸上,写在试慰纸上或草精纸上一律无效.
一、名词解释(每小题6分。共计30分)
1.同品替代
2.腐殖化系数
3.土壤菱荐系敏
4.土壤热容呈
5.土壤自净作用
二、填空题(每空2分, 共计20分)
1.土壤矿物振矿物的未源可分为原生矿物和”
2-土壤微生物根据其对营养和能识的要求,- 般将其分为化能有机营养型。化能
元机营荞型、光能有机营养型和
3.土壤孔度通常是根据土城容全和密度来计算的。其计算公式是
4.土壤中存在三种类型的水分运动。分别是饱和水流、非饱和水流和
5。中国士壤质地分类中细粘粒的粒径是
6.在强酸性土城中,土壤活性酸的主要未源是
7.中国土壤系统分类是以诊断展和
为基础的系统化、定全化的土壤
分类。
8.般来说。 含高岭石较多的土壤。 其阳离于文换且较
9.土壤的粘结性是指同种物质或同种分于相互吸引而粘结的性质。而土壤的粘著
性则是指.
性质。

10.悬迁作用又称为
它是指土体内的硅酸盐粘粒分散于
水中形成的悬液的迁移。.
三、简答题(每小题10分,共计20分)
1.简述土壤团粒结构在土壤肥力上的意义。.
2.简述土壤徽生物在硫循环过程中的作用及土壤硫表报夫的途径。
四、论述题(25 分)
水早轮作系统是我国主要的作物生产系统之一-.土壤季节间的干湿交善交化
是这一- 系统的显著特征,这引起了土壤物理。化学和生物学特性在不同作物季节
间的交善变化,构成独特的衣田生态系统。从水早轮作过程中土壤化学性状交化
的角度。论述水导轮作对土壤磷、土壤锅的生物有效性的影响.,
五分析题(25分)
某人在调查大田蔬菜土壤确态氮流度时发现,5月份采集土壤样品分析.其表
层土壤(0-20 国米)硝态氢沫度值为20/hs而下层土壤(20-40 匡米)确态氮
浓度为50m/ke;而6月份。在同一田块同一地点采荣土壤样品分析。其表层土
壤(0-20 国米)确态氯浓度值为40p/hc而下展土壤(20-40 屋米)确态氦浓度.
为350/ks.表明。5月份表层土壤确态象派度小于下层土壤。而6月份相反。试
问有这种可能吗?如果你认为有这种可能。请分析原固及其理由.
六实验设计题(30分)
石灰性土壤种植玉米常发生快锌和缺确现象。有研究还证实,过呈施用磷肥。
可能加剧石灰性土壤种植玉米的锌缺乏。据此,请设计-个你感兴趣的试验。解
决一个实际问题。要求研究目的明确。技术路线可行。研究内容能够支撑研究目
的。重点员考虑研究方法与设计合理(研究方法可行。供试土擦合理、分析指标
合理)。

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吾爱地理 » 中科院-2012年土壤学考研真题
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