Landsat系列数据下载方法

本系列的文章由知乎用户“Gooong”授权转载

数据概况

陆地卫星计划是运行时间最长的地球观测计划,1972年7月23日地球资源卫星(Earth Resources Technology Satellite)发射,后来此卫星被改称为陆地卫星(LANDSAT),最新的陆地卫星是2013年2月11日发射的陆地卫星8号(LANDSAT 8)。[1]

卫星年表

陆地卫星1号 1972年7月23日发射;1978年1月6日终止操作。
陆地卫星2号 1975年1月22日发射;1981年1月22日终止。
陆地卫星3号 1978年3月5日发射;1983年3月31日终止。
陆地卫星4号 1982年7月16日发射,1993年终止。
陆地卫星5号 1984年3月1日发射,在2011年11月发生故障。已停止获取影像。
陆地卫星6号 1993年10月5日发射,未能进入轨道。
陆地卫星7号 1999年4月15日发射,至今仍能正常作业,但扫描路线校正器有缺陷。
陆地卫星8号 于2013年2月11日推出。

卫星参数一览表

卫星 Landsat1 Landsat2 Landsat3 Landsat4 Landsat5 Landsat6 Landsat7 Landsat8
发射时间 1972.7.23 1975.1.12 1978.3.5 1982.7.16 1984.3 1993.1 1999.4.15 2013.2.11
卫星高度 920km 920km 920km 705km 705km 发射失败 705km 705km
半主轴 7285.438km 7285.989 km 7285.776 km 7285.465 km 7285.438 km 7285.438km
倾角 103.143 103.155 103.115 98.9 98.2 98.2 98.2
经过赤道的时间 8:50am 9:03am 6:31am 9:45am 9:30am 10:00am 10:00am
覆盖周期 18天 18天 18天 16天 16天 16天 16天
扫幅宽度 185km 185km 185km 185km 185km 185km 185km
波段数 4 4 4 7 7 8 9
机载传感器 MSS MSS MSS MSS、TM MSS、TM ETM+ OLI、TIRS
运行情况 1978退役 1976年失灵,1980年修复,1982年退役 1983年退役 1983年TM传感器失效,退役 近29年的超期服役,2011年停止获取数据 2003.5月出现故障 在役服务

波段介绍

  • MSS传感器
Landsat-1~3 Landsat-4~5 波长范围/μm 分辨率/米
MSS-4 MSS-1 0.5~0.6 78米
MSS-5 MSS-2 0.6~0.7 78米
MSS-6 MSS-3 0.7~0.8 78米
MSS-7 MSS-4 0.8~1.1 78米
  • TM传感器
波段 波长范围(μm) 分辨率/米
1 0.45~0.52 30米
2 0.52~0.60 30米
3 0.63~0.69 30米
4 0.76~0.90 30米
5 1.55~1.75 30米
6 10.40~12.50 120米
7 2.08~2.35 30米
  • ETM+传感器
波段 波长范围(μm) 分辨率(m)
1 0.450~0.515 30米
2 0.525~0.605 30米
3 0.630~0.690 30米
4 0.775~0.900 30米
5 1.550~1.750 30米
6 10.40~12.50 60米
7 2.090~2.350 30米
8 0.520~0.900 15米
  • OLI传感器
Landsat8波段号 类型 波长范围(μm) 分辨率(m)
Band1 蓝色波段 0.433–0.453 30
Band2 蓝绿波段 0.450–0.515 30
Band3 绿波段 0.525–0.600 30
Band4 红波段 0.630–0.680 30
Band5 近红外 0.845–0.885 30
Band6 短波红外 1.560–1.660 30
Band7 短波红外 2.100–2.300 30
Band8 微米全色 0.500–0.680 15
Band9 短波红外波段 1.360–1.390 30
  • TIRS
Landsat8波段号 中心波长(μm) 波长范围(μm) 分辨率(m)
Band10 10.9 10.6-11.2 100
Band11 12.0 11.5-12.5 100

常用领域

  • Landsat8常见波段组合形式
用途 波段组合
自然色(Natural Color) 4 3 2
假彩色(False Color (urban)) 7 6 4
红外彩色(Color Infrared (vegetation)) 5 4 3
农业(Agriculture) 6 5 2
大气渗透(Atmospheric Penetration) 7 6 5
健康植被(Healthy Vegetation) 5 6 2
陆地/水体(Land/Water) 5 6 4
大气去除(Natural With Atmospheric Removal) 7 5 3
短波红外(Shortwave Infrared) 7 5 4
植被分析(Vegetation Analysis) 6 5 4

下载方法

主要有三个网站可以下载:

本文档介绍从USGS下载数据的方法:

  1. 打开USUS EarthExplorer网站:https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov,需要在右上角进行用户注册或登录

小技巧

使用gmail或学校邮箱进行注册,收邮件可能会快一些。

_images/EarthExplorer2.png

  1. 左侧标签栏点击”Search Criteria”,选择合适的影像范围和时间,可以通过搜索地点或输入坐标来选择范围

_images/Select2.png

  1. 影像时间和范围确定后,点击”DataSet”进入数据集选择菜单,在出现的数据列表中选择”Landsat”,并勾选自己想要下载的数据集

_images/DataSet2.png

  1. 数据集确定后,点击”Result”,即可查看查询结果;若想根据云量等继续筛选影像,点击”Additional Criteria”设置筛选条件

_images/Result2.png

  1. 查询结果如图所示,在每幅图像下点击“购物车”状符号即可将该图像加入订单,也可以直接点击每幅图像下面的下载按钮进行下载;若对查询结果不满意,可以点击左上侧标签栏返回修改查询条件

_images/SearchResult1.png

  1. 随后点击 “View Item Basket”–>”Proceed To Checkout”–>”Submit Order”,即可完成提交

_images/ViewItemBasket.png

  1. 订单提交后,等待数据处理(可能会处理几天),注意查看注册邮箱,一般USGS发送第三封邮件时会附带下载链接,链接过期会失效,注意及时下载。

小技巧

如果不想等待太久,可以根据搜索出来的条带号和行编号去 地理空间数据云 直接下载

数据处理

使用ENVI软件可以直接打开进行处理

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吾爱地理 » Landsat系列数据下载方法
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