地理教学中地图的阅读方法

我们应怎样提高读图和运用地图图表的能力?拿到一份地图或地图试题,我们要首先弄清地图的比例尺、方向、图例和注记,这是读图的基础。另外,要熟练掌握各种地图和地理图像的阅读方法,运用综合分析的方法,根据题干要求和条件逐一进行综合分析,下面本人就一些常见常用的地图和地理图像的阅读方法谈一点粗浅的看法,仅供参考。1 经纬网图和政区图阅读 经纬网图和政区图是地理学习、考试常见常用图。“地理”首先是“地”,所谓“地”即地方、位置。不同地方、不同位置的事物有它在特定地方、位置出现、存在的道理,这也就是所谓的“理”。所以“地”是“理”的基础。经纬网图和政区图的阅读,首先就是要弄清楚地理位置,这里的位置包括:它是南半球还是北半球?东半球?西半球?高纬?中纬?低纬?靠东?靠西?靠南?靠北?它在七大洲中的位置?周边国家地区如何?距海远近?有什么重要的交通要道等。只有把这些东西弄清楚,你才有可能正确回答题中提出的问题,即弄清这里的地理事象存在的道理。例如,对我国的经纬网格局和我国的政区及其地形等相关地图不熟,就很容易在回答:“巴丹吉林沙漠西南的山与阿尔泰山形成一个天然‘风洞’”这个问题时出现错误。为此,我认为,要解决地图问题,必须做到胸怀祖国,即心中有很清楚的中国政区图,中国地形图;放眼世界,即心中要有比较熟悉的世界经纬网政区图、地形图、气候类型图,同时熟悉本初子午线,108º经纬、南北回归线、赤道等经纬线穿越的大洲、大洋、地形单元、气候区、重要交通要道等。2 地形图和等值线图阅读 地形图主要有分层设色地形图、等高线地形图和地形剖面图等。考场常见常用的主要是等高线地形图和地形剖面图,一看到这类地图及相关题目,我们首先应做到心中有数。即不外乎涉及地形类型判断、阴阳坡问题、坡度问题、断崖问题、河流流向、流速问题等。地形类型判断首先要紧扣概念,即各地形类型的海拨高度、坡度要求,其次要注意技巧,如图1为一等高线地形图,让你判断山脊或是山谷,可从两等高线间的脊(谷)线上任取一点C,作其垂线使其交等高线于两点AB,判断CAB高还是低,高为脊、低为谷,这一方法同样适用于等压线图的高压脊和低压槽的判断和海水等温线图暖流和寒流的判断。

 

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吾爱地理 » 地理教学中地图的阅读方法
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